Danish-German Connections During the Schleswig Wars

In the 21st Century, a Denmark under German rule seems inconceivable. The Danish identity is distinct from the culture of its colossal neighbor to the south and has sought to retain this distinctiveness at least since the establishment of a German-Danish defensive border with the building of the Danevirke in the Nordic Iron Age in the 7th Century AD. In this paper, I will illustrate the Danish-German situation in the mid 19th Century and reveal how the incorporation of Denmark into a German entity was far more likely than most know.

The Kingdom and the Whole State

An important contestation spanning much of the 19th century…


The philosophy of Thomas Jefferson and the thoughts of the Romantic Era are often and easily contrasted but it is certain that important figures of the American Romantic period — such as Ralph Waldo Emerson had ideas that were greatly influenced or at least reflect some of Jefferson’s ideas. Jefferson, of course, taking a major part in the Age of Enlightenment could be mistaken to be completely distant from the reactionary, contrasting, but succeeding Romanticist movement — but this is not the case in many aspects. …


In no particular order, here are three great books on the history of Pennsylvania that I would recommend to history enthusiasts.

Pennsylvania: A History of the Commonwealth


Equipment, Readiness-to-hand, Being-in-the-World, Concern, and Dasein

Many may think that we, in our everyday lives, understand things in the world by observation of their material properties. For example, we may think we generally understand a pencil as a slim, long, pointed object which weighs only a few grams. Martin Heidegger, in Being and Time (1927), adequately shows that in our everyday lives, these physical properties actually mean little to our understanding of entities, and instead, our understanding of entities in the world is a pragmatic one in which we focus on, what he called, the readiness-to-hand of an object.

This paper will lay out Heidegger’s concept…


Morality, Slavery, Political Philosophy

The ideas generated by Thomas Jefferson are quintessentially of the American spirit. In them can be found the pinnacle of the American enlightenment. A certain amount of Jefferson’s revolutionary idealism made its way into the various facets of the United States while other ideals were defeated by opposing solutions.

Although Thomas Jefferson has not written any strictly philosophical texts, he has written plenty of his thoughts on a great multitude of topics throughout his lifetime. It is undeniable that Jefferson was one of the world’s key figures of the enlightenment. …


The Trial of Charles I in 1649 following the English Civil War is easily one of the most influential moments in English history. Although Charles’ beheading is not as renowned as Louis XVI’s and didn't end up with permanent monarchical independence, the event marks a significant dampening of the influence of the English Monarchs after the restoration of the monarchy in 1660.

Although the ethical side of Charles’ actions before the trial is murky (though not unprecedented from earlier English kings), the legality of the trial itself is clear: the Rump Parliament held a stronger position of feasible domination than…


Many know of Leif Erikson’s discovery of Continental America in 1000 AD and everyone knows about Christopher Columbus and his discovery in 1492 but the question is — did Columbus, or if the larger picture is observed, did Europe know about Leif’s discovery of the new world before 1492?

Bradley Gearhart

History and philosophy student interested in intellectual history, historical anthropology, identity, and existential philosophy among other things.

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